Algal turf scrubbers are constructed ecosystems used for wastewater treatment, developed by Walter Adey of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. Our work, which is collaborative with Walter Mulbry of the USDA Agricultural Research Service, has focused on economic assessment of the technology. Several laboratory scale systems are being studied and these systems have been demonstrated at the University of Maryland’s annual open house event on campus.
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ENST 373 Natural History of the Chesapeake Bay
ENST 389 Internship (3)Prerequisite: permission of department. Repeatable to 6 credits.Formerly AGRI 389. Students are placed in work experiences related totheir stated career goals for a minimum of eight hours a week for asemester. Each student must do an in-depth study in some portion of thework experience and produce a special project and report related tothis study. A student work log is also required. An evaluation from theexternal supervisor of the project will be required. Organizations at which our students have completed internships!
ENST 443 Industrial Ecology
ENST 472 Capstone II
ENST 479 Tropical Ecology and Resource Management (1-6)Prerequisites: BSCI106, an introductory economics course, and permission of instructor. Repeatable to 10 credits if content differs. Tropical ecosystems and issues of human use and impact. Includes lectures which lead up to an off-campus trip in a tropical environment.ENST 479 Syllabus
ENST 499K Algae of the Chesapeake (3)An ecological and taxonomic survey of algal groups found in the estuarine portion of the Chesapeake Bay. This is a field-oriented course with all day trips to different locations on the bay for collecting algae and learning about algal habitats. Lab/lecture sessions follow field trips for examination and discussion of the collections made during the trips. Emphasis is on the macroalgal flora of the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed but all algal life forms will be covered in the course.
ENST 689K Algae of the Chesapeake (3)An ecological and taxonomic survey of algal groups found in the estuarine portion of the Chesapeake Bay. This is a field-oriented course with all day trips to different locations on the bay for collecting algae and learning about algal habitats. Lab/lecture sessions follow field trips for examination and discussion of the collections made during the trips. Emphasis is on the macroalgal flora of the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed but all algal life forms will be covered in the course.
Kangas, P. 2004. Ecological Engineering: Principles and Practices. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL.
Blersch, D. and P. Kangas. 2006. Autonomous behavior of a wetland soil technoecosystem. Journal of Environmental Engineering Science.
Pizarro, C., W. Mulbry, D. Blersch and P. Kangas. 2006. An economic assessment of algal turf scrubber technology for treatment of dairy manure effluent. Ecological Engineering.Kangas, P. 2004. Ecological economics began on the Texas bays during the 1950s. Ecological Modelling 178:179-181.Robles-Diaz-de-Leon, L. F. and P. Kangas. 1999. Evaluation of potential gross income from non-timber products in a model riparian forest for the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Agroforestry Systems 44:215-225. Finn, M., P. Kangas and W. Adey. 1999. Mangrove ecosystem development in Biosphere 2. Ecological Engineering 13:173-178.Kangas, P. 1998. Art and the ecosystem. American Biology Teacher 60:20-26. Adey, W., M. Finn, P. Kangas, L. Lange, C. Luckett and D. Spoon. 1996. A Florida Everglades mesocosm - model veracity after four years of self organization. Ecological Engineering 6:171-224.Kangas, P. and W. Adey. 1996. Mesocosms and Ecological Engineering. Ecological Engineering 6:1-5.Kangas, P., M. Shave and P. Shave. 1995. Economics of an ecotourism operation in Belize. Environmental Management 19:669-673. Kangas, P. 1994. Riparian influences on a tropical river ecosystem in Belize, Central America. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 20:109-118.Kangas, P. 1992. Root regrowth in a subtropical wet forest. Biotropica 24:463-465.Kangas, P. C., L. Vanover and V. A. Kimler. 1992. Distribution of neuromass in a Michigan stream ecosystem. BioSystems 26:155-158.Kangas, P. 1991. Macroscopic minimodels of deforestation and diversity. Ecological Modelling 57:277-294.Kangas, P. and A. Lugo. 1990. The distribution of mangroves and saltmarsh in Florida. Tropical Ecology 31:32-39.Kangas, P. 1990. Deforestation and diversity of life zones in the Brazilian Amazon: A map analysis. Ecological Modelling 49:267-275.Kangas, P. 1988. A chess analogy: teaching the role of animals in ecosystems. American Biology Teacher 50:160-162.Kangas, P. C. and H. H. Caswell, Jr. 1987. A litter point-intercept method for determining leaf area index in deciduous forests. Michigan Botanist 26:23-26.Kangas, P. 1983. Simulating succession as a reclamation alternative. In: Third International Conference on State-of-the-Art in Ecological Modeling. Elsevier Sci. Publ., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 451-455.Wang, F. C., H. T. Odum, and P. Kangas. 1980. Energy analysis for environmental impact assessment. Journal of the Water Resources Planning and Management Division, ASCE 106:451-466.
Bulletin and Other ArticlesBlersch, D. and P. Kangas. 2005. Project Greenhab at the University of Maryland - development of a research-scale life support greenhouse. In: F. Crossman and R. Zubrin (eds.). On To Mars, Exploring and Settling a New World. Apogee Books, Burlington, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 95-99.Blersch, D. M., W. Mulbry and P. Kangas. 2005. Emergy of algal systems revisited. In: M. T. Brown (ed.). Emergy Synthesis 3. The Center for Environmental Policy. University of Florida. Gainesville, FL. Pp. 561-568.Kangas, P. 2004. The role of invasive species in a complex ecosystem: Mute swans in the Chesapeake Bay. In: M. C. Perry (ed.). Mute Swans in their Chesapeake Bay Habitats. USGS/BRD/ITR-2004-0005 Information and Technology Report, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, DC. pp. 6-11.Stack, R. C., P. C. Kangas and A. P. Davis. 2004. Rain gardens/bioretention: building a university campus research and teaching site. Land and Water 48(4)22-26.Kangas, P., P. May and S. Kassner. 2003. A case study in Anacostia River restoration. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference on Ecosystems Restoration and Creation. Hillsborough Community College, Tampa, FL. pp. 99-111.Yaron, P., M. Walsh, C. Sazama, R. Bozek, C. Burdette, A. Farrand, C. King, J. Vignola and P. Kangas. 2000. Design and construction of a floating living machine. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference on Ecosystems Restoration and Creation. Hillsborough Community College, Tampa, FL. pp. 92-101.Blersch, D. M., E. Biermann and P. Kangas. 2000. Preliminary design considerations on biological treatment alternatives for a simulated Mars base wastewater treatment system. SAE Technical Paper Series 2000-01-2467, Engineering Society for Advancing Mobility, Warrendale, PA.Ives Halperin, J. and P. C. Kangas. 2000. Design analysis of a recirculating living machine for domestic wastewater treatment. In: 7th International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control. International Water Association, Orlando, FL. pp. 547-555. Biermann, E., B. Jessup, P. May, J. Schaafsma, C. Streb and P. Kangas. 1999. Development of an ecological engineering design seminar. Annals of Earth 17(1)17-19.MacLean, D. and P. Kangas. 1997. Self-organization and planting strategies at a wetland mitigation site in central Maryland. Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference on Ecosystems Restoration and Creation. Hillsborough Community College, Tampa, FL. pp. 207-222.Kangas, P. 1992. Undiscovered species and the falsifiability of the tropical mass extinction hypothesis. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 73:124-125.Harris, L. D. and P. Kangas. 1988. Reconsideration of the habitat concept. Transactions of the 53rd North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. pp. 137-144.Kangas, P. 1987. On the use of species area curves to predict extinctions. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 68:158-162.Harris, L. D. and P. Kangas. 1979. Designing future landscapes from principles of form and function. In: Our National Landscape. Forest Service, USDA, General Technical Report PSW-35. pp. 725-729.Kangas, P. and P. G. Risser. 1979. Species packing in the fast food restaurant guild. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 60:143-148.
Book ChaptersKangas, P. And W. Adey. Submitted. Ecological Engineering of Mesocosms. Encyclopedia of Ecology and Environmental Science. Elsevier Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Adey, W. And P. Kangas. Submitted. Greenhouse Ecosystems. Encyclopedia of Ecology and Environmental Science. Elsevier Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Kangas, P. 1997. Tropical sustainable development and biodiversity. In: M. Reaka-Kudla, D. Wilson and E. O. Wilson (eds.). Biodiversity II, From 1986 to the 21st Century. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, DC. pp. 389-409.Kangas, P. 1995. Information processing models in ecology and education. In: Maximum Power: The Contributions of H. T. Odum to Ecology, Energy, and Economics, C. A. S. Hall (ed.). University Press of Colorado, Niwot, CO. pp. 337-345.Kangas, P. 1990. An energy theory of landscape for classifying wetlands. In: Forested Wetlands. A. Lugo, M. Brinson and S. Brown (eds.). Ecosystems of the World Vol. 15, Elsevier Sci. Publ., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 15-24.